Tuesday, February 26, 2013
Lincoln’s first two-door convertible concept with a power-folding, retractable, glass-roofed hardtop is the Mark X. Pronounced "Mark Ten," the two-seat luxury convertible roadster is based on the rear-wheel-drive Ford Thunderbird architecture, and features a 280 horsepower, 3.9-liter, 4-valve DOHC V-8 aluminum engine mated to a five-speed automatic transmission. Mark X’s SelectShift transmission allows the driver to shift from manual drive to a five-speed automatic from the steering wheel or shifter in the center console. A multi-functional, 7-inch LCD information panel is operated by a mouse located in the center console and displays satellite navigation, climate control status and vehicle dynamics like seat memory or tire pressure.
Lincoln has big plans for the all-new, redesigned Aviator. As the first car-based SUV to come from Lincoln, the next-generation Aviator promises a more car-like ride. Under the Aviator’s hood lies a 3.5-liter V-6 engine mated to a six-speed automatic transmission and a full-time all-wheel-drive system that utilizes hill descent control. Incorporating design cues from Lincolns of old, the Aviator will feature a bright metal strip, which begins at the grille and outlines the vehicle’s structure.
The rejuvenated Lincoln-Mercury design studios created the Navicross concept that had a similar size and shape to that of a sport sedan combined with a sport wagon with the ground clearance and breakover angles of a sport utility vehicle. First seen at the 2003 auto shows, Navicross was a stepping-stone for the creation and introduction of the 2007 Lincoln MKX. The interlocking doors were constructed to take the place of the conventional B-pillar without compromising the structural integrity of the body. Under the hood was a supercharged 32-valve 4.2-liter aluminum V-8 that powered a full-time all-wheel-drive system with adaptive traction control. The 5-speed automatic transmission had a manual sequential function, and sensed driving style and road conditions for optimal gear shifting and performance. Source: Internet
Few production designs age as gracefully as the 1961-63 Lincoln Continental. Its clean, restrained lines still stand out as the antithesis of the finned and chromed beasts that preceded it. As the Continental progressed through the decades, it lost its styling edge. But when the Continental concept debuted at the Los Angeles Auto Show in January of 2002, it was clear somebody in Dearborn found what was once lost. In the two weeks that separated the L.A. show from the Detroit Auto Show, Ford Motor Company announced the results of one of their many restructuring plans. The production Continental was canceled, making the concept a PR nightmare … "Gee, Mr. Ford, you just killed the Continental, what’s this concept about?" For the Detroit show, the newly out-of-the-spotlight concept was shunned and parked in a dark corner of the Lincoln display. Lincoln is still struggling to find its way in terms of design. The MKR that debuted in Detroit this past January, while attractive, looks far more contrived than the 2002 Continental. With the success of Ford’s current Mustang, how much better off would Lincoln have been had they taken the historically inspired path with this Continental? With the average Lincoln Mercury dealer selling fewer than half a dozen cars per month, the company probably wouldn’t be worse off. The 2002 Continental is stored at a facility near Ford’s World Headquarters in Dearborn, Michigan. Source: Internet
The Lincoln MK 9 coupe concept features optimized proportions and stance, combined with an overall restraint in execution. The interior is designed to be indulgent and comfortable - all characteristics that define "American Luxury." "The Lincoln MK 9 displays a timeless elegance borne of the design’s inherent simplicity and visual logic, while its overall exuberance is unmistakably American," says Lincoln Design Director Gerry McGovern. Inside the MK 9, a combination of Dark Cherry Red and Marlboro Red leathers with accents of polished metal create a luxurious lounge environment. The front seats - which are cantilevered off the center console to improve passenger foot space - take their design influence from the Eames Lounge Chair, a mid-20th Century American classic, which was designed for comfort. The symmetrical dashboard is clean and simple. The etched glass instruments are crafted with jewel-like quality and illuminated indirectly. The MK9’s controls are a combination of advanced digital and analog interfaces. Navigation and telematics information is displayed on a reconfigurable screen in the center console that is operated by retractable controls that sit flush when not in use. The transmission selection is by an electronic, column-mounted paddle shifter. The creation of a design philosophy to define American Luxury at Lincoln is being driven by an international team of designers headed by McGovern, who joined Lincoln Mercury in 1999 from Rover Group, where he was Design Director for Land Rover vehicles. "Lincoln has given me an incredible opportunity to hand-select a team of the best young designers from all over the world to explore the brand’s heritage and build a design philosophy around the tangible and emotional qualities that define America and American Luxury," McGovern says. "We have a holistic view of product design that is different from a traditional automotive approach," McGovern adds. "Lincoln Design and our show properties like the MK 9 are about defining and embracing a philosophy to guide every step of the product development process." The Lincoln design team, which includes interior designers, modelers, materials experts and packaging engineers, began their work with an exploration of Lincoln’s heritage. "Before we could define what Lincoln design should stand for in the future, we first had to understand its past," said McGovern. "In our exploration, we learned that two Lincoln coupes - the 1940 Continental and the 1956 Continental Mark II - followed by the iconic Continental sedans and convertibles of the 1960's, had tremendous cache and were incredible design statements. Interestingly, they all have design elements that are still appropriate in a modern context." McGovern says the 1940 Continental - a car that architect Frank Lloyd Wright declared to be the most beautiful car in the world - is significant for its sheer elegance. The Continental, which was commissioned by Edsel Ford and designed by E.T. Gregorie, was the first vehicle honored for design excellence by the Museum of Modern Art in New York. The Mark II was envisioned as the contemporary evolution of the original Continental. The Mark II established the classic hood, cabin and deck proportions of the modern luxury coupe and was an oasis of restraint in a market dominated by tail fins, chrome and exaggerated styling elements. The 1961 Continental, which was designed by Elwood Engel, remains one of the most enduring automotive designs of all time. Its sheer body surfaces, unique center-opening doors, chrome-accented shoulder line and overall restraint established a signature look for Lincoln that was totally unique. Pablo Picasso owned a Continental from this era. 1960's-era Continentals still have tremendous visual impact and have been featured in several popular films, including "The Matrix." "When a brand has such a strong design heritage as Lincoln, the challenge is to recognize the past without being held back by it," McGovern says. "Between the 1940's and the 1960's, Lincolns were about beautiful proportions, elegant sophistication and restraint. These are qualities we can realize in a modern context without being at all retrospective." Source: Internet
In 1996 came the Sentinel, a startling expression of Ford’s edge design ethos: a high waistline, wonderfully sculpted lighting, ultra-clean, flat shapes and elegant proportions. It was a huge car, but felt right, and was even made into a runner on a lengthened Jaguar platform. Source: Internet
Lincoln’s 2-seat L2K roadster concept came equipped with a new 3.4-liter, 32-valve V-8 that cranked-out 250 horses. Power drove the rear wheels through a high-tech 4-speed automatic tranny. L2K stood for Lincoln 2000, and was one of several attempts to develop a convertible version of the Mark-series sport-luxury coupe. Source: Internet
Lincoln’s Marque X concept convertible, painted a burnt tangerine pearl orange hue, showcased a cab-forward design to maximize the space available for people. This future flagship featured a simulated spare-tire bulge on its decklid, speed-sensitive front underbody spoiler, low-profile fiber optic headlights, 19-inch cast magnesium wheels, and an electronic, speed-sensitive aerodynamic spoiler. Under the hood sat a 32-valve DOHC V-8, matched to a four-speed automatic transmission. A coded "credit card" was used to start the engine, and in the leather cockpit was a voice-activated telephone, navigation system, and fax machine. For rear passengers, the Marque X contained a pop-up TV and dual temperature food and beverage storage container. Source: Internet
Adventures in styling shapes that flowed were prevalent in the Lincoln Machete concept car of 1988. Airflow management was the key with front and rear lift control devices helping downforce and braking as well. A six window design flowed into the trunk. Controllable glass tinting was controlled via LCDs. Head and taillights were minimal in area, but were not to lack in intensity. The driver was surrounded by a flowing display area and console with fiber optic graphics, while the passenger had a smoothly sculptured safety bar. Outside rearview mirrors were replaced by television cameras with a pair of screens on the dash completing the circuit. Source: Internet
A two seat show car also known as the Vignale Gilda. The interior used parts from the forthcoming Thunderbird. In January 1987 Lincoln blasted its way back into the show car game with a tour de force sports roadster designed in America and built by the Italian coachbuilder, Vignale. Initially displayed at the Detroit Auto Show, the Lincoln by Vignale, as it is officially known, was prepared in response to the anticipated introduction of the Pininifarina-designed Cadillac Allante. The Lincoln by Vignale was created to demonstrate Lincoln‘s ideas about a possible world-class luxury touring coupe for the 1990s and is reportedly being considered for eventual production. Projected power will be by means of a traditional Lincoln V-8 engine with all-wheel drive and four-wheel independent suspension. The Lincoln by Vignale is in its own way a pure show car: It is tremendously exciting and a very tangible look at possible future real world transportation.
ELECTRONIC CONCEPT CAR Ford Motor Company's Continental Concept 100 has aerodynamic design and a vast array of advanced electronics. The exterior features new low-proﬁle halogen headlamps with aerodynamic covers, bronze-tinted glass with compound curvature, a heated windshield and pearlescent paint. There are no door handles to mar the sleek lines. An aerodynamic antenna for satellite navigation is mounted on the trunk lid, and sensors for at Sonar Detection system are installed in ports in the front and rear bumpers. The car is driveable and all electronic features are functional. Source: Ford Press Release
From 1982, a preview of the forthcoming "Aero" Mark VI. The Continental Concept 90 five-passenger coupe was displayed in the Lincoln Mercury exhibit to test public acceptance of its sleek rounded body that formed a subtle wedge shape. Based on development models, the Continental Concept 90 was rated as having better aerodynamic efficiency than any luxury car built in the United States. FORD UNVEILS THE NORTH AMERICAN LUXURY CAR OF THE MID 80's The Continental Concept 90 Ford in the United States is previewing what it considers will be the shape and concept of the North American luxury car of the mid 1980's. Known as the Continental Concept 90, this sleek, aerodynamic prototype is to be displayed at a series of North American Auto Shows so that Ford engineers and product planners can research and evaluate public opinion. "Efficent aerodynamic design not only provides the most contemporary styling", said Donald F. Kopka, Ford Vice President - Design in North America, "but it also leads directly to fuel-saving." Trend-setter Continental Concept 90 retains many of the traditional distinctive features of Ford Motor Company's Lincoln Continental - the model that has consistently been the North American industry's trend-setter in luxury car design. The Continental Concept 90 is a two-door, five-passenger car, with the rear boot lid still carrying a hint of Continental's "spare wheel" bulge. In profile, the sleek, rounded, pearlescent-white, two-door hardtop exhibits a subtle wedge shape that results in an estimated coefficient of drag rating of only 0.32. The aerodynamic design also is apparent when viewed from above - slightly tapered at front and rear to hold airflow tight to the body. "One of the most distinctive design elements of the Continental Concept 90" has important consumer benefits besides aerodinamics," said Mr Kopka. "The doors are limousine-style and carry up into the roof surface. They not only provide easier entry and exit, they permit us to hide the drip rails within the door openings, thus gaining a further reduction in air resistance." Attention to detail Throughout, the car shows attention to aerodynamic detail. It has integrated, flush headlamps and wrap-around rear lamps, as well as flush-glazing. A lower front valance panel increases aerodynamic efficiency, as does the concealed windscreen wiper system. Airflow openings are meticulously arranged to provide not only good cooling but excellent airflow over the top of the vehicle and reduce air resistance, while the free-standing side-view mirrors are designed to be highly aerodynamic. Flush-fitting bumpers are completely integrated into the body shape and the bumper moulding wraps around the car for side protection, achieving a practical benefit without sacrifice in styling. Flush wheel-covers add to the car's aerodynamic "slipperiness". Thermostatically-controlled Air intake Several functional engineering features are planned to complement the design features that give the concept car its aerodynamic promise. Since the stance of the vehicle as it meets the oncoming air affects aerodynamic drag, the car could vary its altitude when in motion to improve fuel economy by further 4 pent. Another advance for the Continental Concept 90 would be a thermostatically-controlled louvred grille to match the engine and air conditioning cooling requirements to the airflow over the car. At low speeds, as when the car is climbing a steep gradient at 48 km/h, a maximum or air would pass through the grille, for the greatest cooling. For highway cruising, the angle of the louvres would change to minimise the cooling drag by diverting a greater proportion of the airflow over the car, improving fuel economy by an additional 6 per cent. Continental Concept 90 has a low profile, with an overall height of 1351 mm. It sits on a 2751 mm wheelbase and is 5080 inches in overall length. By comparison, the 1982 Mark VI Lincoln Continental stands 1047 mm, the wheelbase is 2903 mm and length is 5486 mm. FORD PRESS RELEASE
Continental Mark II, 1956-57 The 1956 Lincoln Continental Mark II was unique in its innovative design. Structurally, the Lincoln Continental Mark II chassis combined ladder-type and Y-shape cross-bracing, which made it 30 percent stronger and much more rigid than Lincoln's 1952-1955 X-member frame. Because the "cowbelly" design meant a relatively higher transmission hump, a special three-joint driveshaft was developed to minimize intrusion. The low-profile chassis also dictated some suspension differences compared to the 1956 Lincoln, but geometry was the same: coil springs and control arms in front, longitudinal leaf springs at the rear. Exclusive to the Mark II were special temperature-sensitive shock absorbers, for a smoother ride. Each finished chassis was dynamometer tested and tuned before its body was added. Wheel alignment was held to super-fine tolerances, and wheels, tires, and the power-assisted drum brakes were all carefully balanced. Attention to detail quality was evident in every phase of Lincoln Continental Mark II assembly. Consider the care involved with just the painting. First, the supporting structure and all body panels were fitted on a simulated chassis, then removed. After the body was surface-sealed, a primer coat was applied, water-sanded by hand, then baked. Next came a surfacer coat with another hand sanding and baking, followed by two lacquer color coats that were oil-sanded by hand, then baked. Finally, two more lacquer coats were applied and baked, followed by a thorough hand-buffing and polishing. Similar care was lavished in places where most customers would never think to look. Chrome plating exceeded SAE specification by a factor of three. Nuts and bolts were near-aircraft quality, and some were chromed. Door end panels and door jambs were plated in hard chrome and screwed into place, and chrome was used even on stainless-steel trim. The Mark II was chromed where it counted, not necessarily where it showed. This obsession with perfection partly explains why the Mark II was offered in just a single body style, a hardtop coupe, and with only one driveline. Buyers had a wide choice of exterior colors, but there were no pinks, aquamarines, or other shocking 1950's favorites. There were no two-tones, either, and they would have been out of place anyway. From any angle, the Mark II was exceptionally elegant for this flamboyant era: clean, dignified without being stuffy and, most important, thoroughly evocative of its 1940-1941 ancestor. Though its long-hood/short-deck proportions weren't as pronounced, it did have the same sort of close-coupled appearance. And it maintained tradition with a trunk-lid styled to resemble the familiar "continental" spare tire. Source: Internet
1955 Lincoln Indianapolis (Indy) by Boano In 1954 Edsel Ford handed control of Ford Motors to his son Henry Ford II. Anxious to bring Ford back into the modern era, Henry the Second hired Italian Gian Paolo Boano to construct a one-off show car on a new Lincoln chassis. This is the result – the stunning 1955 Lincoln Indianapolis. The car was first exhibited at the 1955 Turin Motor Show. As you can see from the pic, the design is very futuristic, and was inspired by 1950s aviation. The result was a flamboyant and bold concept. After the Indianapolis was shown in Turin, it was sent to the United States where it was consigned back to Henry Ford II. After using it as his personal car for more than a year, it is believed that Ford gave the car to his friend, Errol Flynn. Source: Internet
Regarded as a clue to the "shape of tomorrow in American automotive styling," the Futura dream car measured only 52.8 inches from the top of its double-domed plexiglas canopy to the ground. Designed by the company's stylists and engineers to serve as a laboratory on wheels, the car had many innovations adaptable for production vehicles. A special Lincoln experimental chassis added to the ground-hugging appearance. Ground clearance was six inches at the center of the frame and 7.2 inches at the side rails. Both the cowl and the rear deck were less than 35 inches from the ground at their highest point. An inch short of 19 feet in overall length, the Futura was 84.6 inches wide and had a wheelbase of 126 inches. In order to preserve the clean, uncluttered lines of the instrument panel, controls were contained in separate compartments in the lower half of the panel, and each compartment had its own flexible roll-down door. Toggle switches were set into the chrome interior of these compartments. Reading from the driver's left were the heater, lighting, accessories, radio and glove compartment. Each light control switch had a label which was illuminated when the light was on. The steering column binnacle contained warning lights for fuel, battery and temperature and high-beam light indicators. The fuel tank light was green when the tank is full, amber when the gas supply dropped to half a tank, and red when the supply was low. The lower half of the binnacle contains the speedometer, while a tachometer and odometer were centered in the steering column. Pushbutton control of the Turbo-Drive automatic transmission eliminated the gear lever. Chrome pushbuttons, square for reverse and park, and round for neutral and the forward gears, were located in the functional pedestal dividing the two front seats. As a safety measure, it was necessary to go through two operations to move from reverse to a forward gear or from forward to reverse. As an additional safety factor, the parking gear control was linked with the roof controls so that the car could not be operated if the roof section were raised. On the cowl in front of the driver were five different-colored lights which indicated what gear the car was in. The sweeping shark-fin rear quarter panels of the all-steel body housed functional twin air scoops. The lower half of each scoop directed cooling air for the rear brakes. The upper half was ducted to provide fresh air for the air conditioning system. The front end of the Futura was set off by a concave grille with unbroken vertical members and parking lights at each end. Headlights were housed in the skillfully contoured front fenders which swept into the center portion of the hood. Ford unveiled the long, low but sharply finned Futura in 1955. If this car — with its twin-bubble cockpit cover — looks familiar, it’s because Ford later sold it to Hollywood producers who converted it into the Batmobile for the 1960s "Batman" TV series. Source: Internet
1953 XL-500 had pushbutton transmission in the steering wheel, telephone and dictaphone and automatic jacks that lifted it for repairs. FOR RELEASE MARCH 12, 1953 Advance sports car styling is combined with practicability and dignity in Ford Motor Company’s experimental design model - the XL-500. Newest in the continuous staff, the XL-500 offers a glimpse of what is ahead in automotive styling and mechanical features. Designed to accomodate comfortably four adult passengers, the XL-500 has scarlet fiberglas body and all-glass roof. Less than 57 inches high? it has arched rear fenders which permit the frame to ride closer to the road. First public appearance of the model will be in the Lincoln-Mercury exhibit at the Chicago Automobile Show, March 14 - 22. Source: Internet
Announced in 1952, this was Ford's "Car of Tomorrow," a pilot model being studied toward future development as a practical five-passenger sedan. Called the Lincoln Continental Nineteen Fifty X, it served as a laboratory for the creation of new features for possible inclusion on production cars. This view showed how the curved windshield blended into the clear-dome top. For fair-weather driving, the non-glare, low-heat transmitting top over the front seat retracted mechanically into the leather-covered canopy. Source: Internet
In 1938, Henry Ford’s son, Edsel, came home from a trip to Europe eager to drive an American-made car with continental flair. Within an hour, Bob Gregorie, Ford stylist and former yacht designer, had a sketch. By the time Edsel was ready for his winter drive to Florida, so was his car, which was such a hit among the Palm Beach set that Edsel called back to Dearborn, Mich., and said he could sell 1,000 of them. The company actually sold twice that many. Source: Internet Source: Internet
The Lincoln Zephyr, released in 1935, was a great success with its streamlined design. Its modern headlights embedded in the front fender and the elimination of the running board gave it a stylish, futuristic look. It was instantly popular. Its unitary-constructed, pressed-steel body created superb front and rear balance and influenced Volkswagen’s Beetle. The 1937 model, with a few changes, remained the same as the ones built in 1935. Source: Internet